EUROPEAN UNION GROUPS
EU14: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden
EU8: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia
EU2: Bulgaria, Romania
Future migrant labour from the EU
It’s clear that some industries and occupations are more reliant on migrant labour than others, and the relationship between workers, wages, skills, occupations and nationality is under scrutiny, particularly for workers from EU countries outside the UK as Brexit negotiations start.
That includes the manufacturing industry, which takes 11% of its workforce from the EU, as well as the transport, construction and the distribution, hotels and restaurant industries, which each take 9% of their workforce from the EU respectively.5
These figures don’t include additional short-term workers, such as seasonal workers, and so the importance of EU labour in these areas may be greater still.
It’s worth noting that nationals from the EU8 and EU2 countries tend to work longer hours for less money (based on median gross hourly pay), and, in common with EU14 nationals, are more likely to be over-qualified for the roles they are doing than UK nationals, yet they are more likely to be in jobs requiring low skills.
Nationals from EU14 countries tend to be in jobs requiring high skills, and earn more than UK nationals.
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