EUROPEAN UNION GROUPS EU14: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden EU8: Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia EU2: Bulgaria, Romania
Future migrant labour from the EU It’s clear that some industries and occupations are more reliant on migrant labour than others, and the relationship between workers, wages, skills, occupations and nationality is under scrutiny, particularly for workers from EU countries outside the UK as Brexit negotiations start.
That includes the manufacturing industry, which takes 11% of its workforce from the EU, as well as the transport, construction and the distribution, hotels and restaurant industries, which each take 9% of their workforce from the EU respectively.5
These figures don’t include additional short-term workers, such as seasonal workers, and so the importance of EU labour in these areas may be greater still.
It’s worth noting that nationals from the EU8 and EU2 countries tend to work longer hours for less money (based on median gross hourly pay), and, in common with EU14 nationals, are more likely to be over-qualified for the roles they are doing than UK nationals, yet they are more likely to be in jobs requiring low skills.
Nationals from EU14 countries tend to be in jobs requiring high skills, and earn more than UK nationals.
Why not try the questions. and see how you do? More than 1 question per box
Thousands of people on universal credit will not be paid over the festive season or will get a reduced payment, the BBC Moneybox show has highlighted. Those hit will be some of the 67,000 people who claim the benefit while working and who are paid weekly. This is because there are five paydays in December, so their monthly income will be deemed too high to qualify for the benefit. Some will have to reapply.
If you’re paid monthly by your employer on the same date each month, you will get one payment of earnings within a Universal Credit assessment period.
As long as your earnings and personal circumstances stay the same, then your Universal Credit payments should stay the same.
If you take on additional work and earn enough to no longer get Universal Credit you will be notified of this. Should your earnings reduce in the following months you will need to re-apply – although the process will be quicker as we will have most of your details to hand.
Conservative MPs abstained and the vote is not binding on the government.
Following the vote the Commons Speaker, John Bercow has said it was for government ministers to decide how to respond to the \"clearly expressed view of the House\".
Labour's Frank Field told MPs a food bank in his Birkenhead constituency needed to order five tonnes of extra food to deal with hardship caused by the roll-out of universal credit over Christmas.
He asked Work and Pensions Secretary David Gauke if his constituents should ignore the food bank's warnings, or give it extra donations as a result of the minister's "inability to deliver a scheme that works".
The Speaker, John Bercow, has said the government should send a minister to the House to give an "indication of its thinking" following the vote on universal credit.
In a highly-charged Commons, he told ministers: "This institution is bigger than any one party, and frankly it is bigger than any one government. This place and what we do here matters very much."
His comments came after Conservative MPs had been ordered by the leadership not to take part in any vote.
However, Labour forced the vote, which meant the Opposition technically won the motion calling for the rollout of the benefit to be paused.
The Conservative MP, Sir Edward Leigh, also criticised his own government's tactics, saying: "What worries me is that surely there is some sort of precedent here..... this is not and should not be a university debating society.
"What is the point of the House of Commons if we just express opinions for the sake of it? Surely when we vote, it should have some effect."